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64                                               MEBICAL  JURISPRUDENCE

clean receptacle or dish and examined minutely on its upper as well as under
surface (base) for the evidence of any injury, effusion of blood, inflam-
matory products, embolism of arteries, morbid growths or any disease of its
tissue. The ventricles should also be examined.

/        The dura mater should lastly be stripped from the base of the skull to
i facilitate its examination for the presence of fractures.


Before examining the thorax, both the cavities, the thorax and the
abdomen should be opened by making a longitudinal incision from above
the middle of the sternum to the pubic bone, keeping wide away from any
wounds existing in its line. In infant bodies the incision should be carried
a little to the left of the umbilicus. The integument, fascia and muscles
should now be reflected and examined for extravasation of blood in their
inner surface. The abdominal cavity should be examined before the chest
cavity is opened. The colour and appearance of the abdominal viscera, as
also the position of the diaphragm with respect to the ribs (especially in
full term newly-born infant bodies) should be noted. It should also be noted
if there is any collection of blood, serum, pus, or fsecal matter in the cavity.

After this preliminary, the examination of the thorax should be pro-
ceeded with.   The ribs and sternum should first be examined for evidence
of fracture and then the cavity of the thorax should" be opened by dividing
the ribs at their cartilages and the sternum at the sternoclavicular junctions!
with the costotome and lifting up the sternum separating it from the under- ]
lying parts without injuring them.    The pkiural cavities should be examined I
for the presence of adhesions, foreign bodies or fluid of a bloody or purulent/
nature.   The pericardium should be opened and examined for any adhesions
between its two surfaces or if there is any abnormal quantity of fluid present
in its cavity.   Normally about a drachm of bloody serum is found in the
pericardial sac.   The  condition  of  the  chambers  of  the  heart  should be
examined by opening them in situ.   The lungs and heart should be removed
from the cavity and laid on the table.   The lungs should be cut open for
evidence of disease, congestion, injury, Tardieu's spots, etc., and the bronchi
should be examined for the presence of pent up expectoration, pus, or any
foreign body.    The heart should be opened and its chambers examined for
(   the presence  of valvular disease,  and the condition  of the endorcardium
v should be noted.   The coronary arteries should be opened and examined for
j obstruction   of,   or   thrombosis   in,   their   lumen.   The   aorta   should   be
examined for aneurysm or calcareous degeneration.

To examine the larynx, trachea and oesophagus an incision should be
made from the chin to the upper part of the sternum after throwing the head
well backward and placing a block of wood beneath the neck. After reflect-
ing the soft parts on each side of the middle of the larynx, both the trachea
and the oesophagus should be removed and examined by cutting them open
from their posterior surface. The interior of the oesophagus should be exa-
mined for evidence of congestion, inflammation or ulceration of its mucous
membrane, and the presence of a foreign body, tumour or stricture. The
larynx and trachea should be examined for the presence of froth or a
foreign body in their interior, and their mucous membrane should be
examined for congestion or inflammation.


The peritoneum should be first examined for evidences of adhesions, con-
gestion, inflammation, or exudation of lymph or pus. The abdominal and
pelvic cavities should then be examined for the presence of a serous, bloody